What do German Shepherds usually die from?

What Do German Shepherds Usually Die From?

As dog lovers, we understand that our beloved pets are not with us forever. Each breed has its health characteristics and typical lifespan, and for those who have a place in their hearts for the brave and loyal German Shepherd, it's particularly important to understand what challenges these dogs may face throughout their lives.

Welcome to our comprehensive blog post, "What do German Shepherds usually die from?" In this blog, we will delve deep into the health landscape of this cherished breed, shedding light on the most common diseases and causes of death among German Shepherds.

We’ll cut through the clutter, skip all unnecessary trivia, and focus solely on the vital knowledge every German Shepherd or prospective owner should have. In our commitment to being the best resource on the internet for this topic, we've collaborated with expert veterinarians, conducted an extensive review of scientific studies, and curated anecdotal insights from German Shepherd breeders and owners.

Expect to gain insights into the typical lifespan of a German Shepherd, common health problems, genetic predispositions, and lifestyle factors that could impact their longevity. But this is not just a list of problems – we'll also share preventive measures, care tips, and medical advancements that can help your German Shepherd live a longer, happier life.

German Shepherds are primarily prone to certain health issues due to their breed-specific genetics. Among the leading causes of death are hip dysplasia, degenerative myelopathy, and various forms of cancer, particularly hemangiosarcoma, and osteosarcoma. Early detection and care are crucial for managing these conditions.

These brave and dedicated dogs are also susceptible to various other health conditions, including bloat (gastric dilation volvulus), heart disease, epilepsy, and autoimmune diseases. Each of these health issues presents unique challenges and requires different forms of treatment and management.

Hip dysplasia in German Shepherd dogs

Remember, knowledge is the first step to prevention. Let's embark on this journey together to understand more about our faithful companions and how we can best support them in their golden years.

This post will serve as a valuable guide for anyone seeking to provide the best care for their German Shepherd. Stay tuned as we unveil the often-misunderstood health aspects of these incredible dogs.

What is the average life of a German Shepherd?

German Shepherds typically live between 9-13 years, a lifespan influenced by various factors like genetics, diet, exercise, and regular veterinary care. However, it's not uncommon for well-cared-for Shepherds to surpass this range, living into their early or even mid-teens.

Understanding the average lifespan of German Shepherds is just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to knowing the health landscape of this breed. Several factors can influence how long a German Shepherd lives.

For instance, their genetic makeup can significantly determine their susceptibility to certain health issues. Their diet and exercise routines are other important factors. Regular exercise and a well-balanced diet can extend a dog's life and improve its quality. Regular veterinary care is also critical, as early detection of health issues can significantly increase a dog's chances of recovery and longevity.

Regular exercise promotes German Shepherds' heart health, manages weight, and boosts wellbeing, contributing to a longer, healthier life.

Lifestyle and environmental factors also play a role. For example, German Shepherds who live in a happy, stress-free environment, and are well-socialized, often tend to live longer and healthier lives. Also, those raised in a clean environment with regular grooming and parasite control tend to be healthier.

Furthermore, German Shepherds, like all dogs, age at a different rate than humans. When a German Shepherd is one year old, they are considered the same as a 15-year-old human teenager. The breed ages rapidly compared to humans, so by the time a German Shepherd is 2, they are roughly equivalent to a 24-year-old human. After that, each dog year equals approximately five human years.

In essence, the longevity and health of a German Shepherd are affected by a complex interplay of genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. The more you understand about these, the better equipped you'll be to support the health and happiness of your German Shepherd throughout its life.

Let’s now dive into the 10 most common health issues and diseases that German Shepherds usually die from.

Awareness of these potential problems can help you identify early warning signs and seek appropriate veterinary care, thus increasing the likelihood of a positive outcome for your beloved canine companion.

10 most common diseases and health issues that German Shepherds usually die from

While German Shepherds are generally robust and healthy dogs, they are predisposed to certain health conditions due to their specific breed characteristics. These health issues can significantly influence your German Shepherd's lifespan and quality of life.

Being aware of them can help in early detection and treatment, potentially increasing longevity and improving the overall well-being of your furry friend.

Here are the ten most common health issues and diseases that German Shepherds usually die from:

  1. Hip and Elbow Dysplasia
  2. Degenerative Myelopathy
  3. Bloat (Gastric Dilatation Volvulus)
  4. Various Forms of Cancer (Hemangiosarcoma, Osteosarcoma)
  5. Heart Disease (particularly subaortic stenosis)
  6. Epilepsy
  7. Pancreatic Insufficiency (Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency - EPI)
  8. Allergies and Skin Conditions
  9. Perianal Fistulas
  10. Autoimmune Diseases

Hip and Elbow Dysplasia

Hip and elbow dysplasia are skeletal conditions often seen in German Shepherds due to their large size and rapid growth. Both conditions involve malformation and deterioration of the respective joints, leading to pain, inflammation, and mobility issues. Genetics plays a significant role, but factors like diet, exercise, and weight can also impact severity.

German Shepherd back hip CT scan

Symptoms include difficulty standing up, limping, or a change in gait. Working with a reputable breeder who screens for these conditions and keeps your dog at a healthy weight is crucial. Regular, low-impact exercise like swimming can also be beneficial. Treatment can involve physical therapy, medication for pain and inflammation, and in severe cases, surgery.

Degenerative Myelopathy

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM) is a progressive neurological disorder often found in German Shepherds. It affects the spinal cord, leading to a loss of coordination in the hind limbs, gradually progressing to paralysis. This condition typically manifests in older dogs, starting with a loss of coordination or a wobbly gait in the back legs.

Degenerative myelopathy

As DM is painless but irreversible, management focuses on maintaining the quality of life through supportive care, including physical rehabilitation and assistive devices like harnesses or wheelchairs. Genetic testing can identify dogs carrying the gene for DM, which is crucial information for breeders aiming to minimize the occurrence of this disease in future generations.

Bloat (Gastric Dilatation Volvulus)

Bloat, or Gastric Dilatation Volvulus (GDV), is a life-threatening condition common in large, deep-chested breeds like German Shepherds. It occurs when the dog's stomach fills with gas and twists, cutting off the blood supply. Symptoms include a swollen abdomen, unproductive vomiting, and restlessness. GDV is an emergency requiring immediate veterinary intervention.

Bloat in German Shepherds

Without prompt treatment, it can be fatal. Preventive measures include feeding smaller, more frequent meals, discouraging rapid eating, and avoiding strenuous exercise before and after meals. Some vets recommend a preventive surgical procedure, called gastropexy, for breeds at high risk of GDV. This operation can often be done when the dog is spayed or neutered.

Various Forms of Cancer (Hemangiosarcoma, Osteosarcoma)

Cancer is a leading cause of death among older German Shepherds, with Hemangiosarcoma and Osteosarcoma being common types. Hemangiosarcoma is a fast-growing, highly invasive cancer of the blood vessels, often affecting the spleen, heart, or liver. Osteosarcoma is a malignant bone cancer, typically appearing in the limbs.

Various forms of dog cancer

Symptoms vary depending on the cancer type and stage but may include lethargy, weight loss, lameness, or noticeable lumps. While these cancers can be aggressive, early detection and treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation, can improve prognosis. Maintaining regular veterinary check-ups and being vigilant about changes in your dog's health can facilitate early diagnosis and increase treatment success.

Heart Diseases (particularly subaortic stenosis)

Heart disease, particularly Subaortic Stenosis (SAS), is a common health issue in German Shepherds. SAS is a congenital condition where a narrow ring of tissue forms below the aortic valve, impeding blood flow. This can strain the heart, potentially leading to heart failure over time. Symptoms may not be noticeable until the disease has advanced but can include weakness, difficulty breathing, or fainting.

Heart diseases in German Shepherds

A veterinary cardiologist can diagnose SAS through tests such as an echocardiogram. While there's no cure, treatment focuses on managing symptoms and reducing the risk of complications. This may involve medication and a specialized diet. Breeding dogs should be screened for SAS to reduce the incidence of this disease in future generations.


Epilepsy is a neurological disorder causing recurrent seizures and is relatively common in German Shepherds. While frightening, epilepsy can often be managed effectively with medication. Seizures can vary from mild, almost unnoticeable episodes to severe fits involving loss of consciousness and muscle convulsions.

Brain waves during epilepsy

Brain waves during epilepsy

Epilepsy in dogs is typically genetic but can also be caused by other underlying health issues like brain tumors or trauma. If your dog experiences seizures, it's crucial to consult a vet for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan. While living with an epileptic dog can be challenging, most can enjoy a good quality of life with proper management and care.

Pancreatic Insufficiency (Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency - EPI)

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI) is a condition where the pancreas doesn't produce enough digestive enzymes, common in German Shepherds. Dogs with EPI struggle to digest food properly, leading to malnutrition and weight loss despite a healthy appetite. Symptoms also include diarrhea and a change in stool appearance.

Pancreatic Insufficiency in dogs

EPI is typically diagnosed with a blood test and managed with enzyme supplements added to the dog's meals. This allows for proper digestion and nutrient absorption. Diet modifications might also be necessary. While EPI requires lifelong management, dogs with this condition can live healthy lives with proper care and monitoring. It's essential to work closely with your vet to ensure your dog gets the right treatment and nutritional support.

Allergies and Skin Conditions

German Shepherds are susceptible to a range of allergies and skin conditions. These can be caused by environmental factors such as pollen, dust mites, mold spores or by food allergies. Symptoms can include itching, redness, sores, and hair loss, primarily affecting the ears, paws, and hindquarters. Chronic skin issues can also lead to secondary bacterial or yeast infections.

Related blog post: German Shepherd most common allergies

German Shepherd skin allergy

📷 VacharapongW/ iStock via Getty Images

The most common cause of skin allergies in dogs is environmental allergens such as dust mites, pollen, and mold. These can cause itching, redness, and discomfort in susceptible dogs.

Managing these conditions often involves identifying and avoiding the allergen, if possible, along with medication to control the symptoms. Special diets or supplements may also help. Regular grooming and skin checks are vital to catch and treat issues early. A carefully tailored care routine can manage these conditions well, allowing your German Shepherd to lead a comfortable life.

Perianal Fistulas

Perianal Fistulas, also known as anal furunculosis, is a painful and often recurring condition more common in German Shepherds than many other breeds. They are characterized by chronic, deep sores around the anus, which can cause discomfort, pain, and difficulty defecating. The cause of this condition is not entirely understood, but it's believed to involve an overactive immune response.

Treatment often involves a combination of surgery to remove affected tissue and medication to manage pain and inflammation and suppress the immune response. Your veterinarian may also recommend dietary changes. While this is a challenging condition to manage, many dogs can achieve a good quality of life with dedicated care.

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases are conditions where the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its cells. German Shepherds are prone to several types, including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), where the body destroys its red blood cells, and autoimmune thyroiditis, which can lead to hypothyroidism. Symptoms vary widely based on the specific disease and can range from lethargy, weight changes, and skin problems to more severe issues like anemia.

Autoimmune diseases in dogs

Treatment typically involves long-term medication to suppress the immune system and alleviate symptoms. Regular veterinary check-ups are crucial for early detection and management. While autoimmune diseases pose significant challenges, with careful monitoring and treatment, affected dogs can lead fulfilling lives. It's key to work closely with your vet to create a tailored care plan for your German Shepherd.

What causes a German Shepherd to die suddenly?

German Shepherds can die suddenly from various causes, with bloat or Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus (GDV) being one of the most common. This fast-acting condition involves the stomach twisting and filling with gas, leading to a rapid decline in health and potential death if not immediately treated.

Similarly, hemangiosarcoma, a type of cancer that can cause internal bleeding, may lead to sudden death. Heart disease can also cause unexpected death, especially if the dog has an undiagnosed condition.

Regular vet check-ups and knowledge of breed-specific conditions are crucial to early detection and treatment. If you notice sudden changes in your dog's behavior or health, seek veterinary assistance immediately.

What do the majority of German Shepherds pass away?

Most German Shepherds live between 9 to 13 years, with many passing away within this age range due to old age and associated health problems. The exact age largely depends on individual health status, lifestyle, and genetic factors. As German Shepherds age, they become more susceptible to health issues like hip dysplasia, heart disease, and various forms of cancer. 

What do majority of German Shepherds pass away

A balanced diet, regular exercise, preventative healthcare, and prompt treatment for health issues can enhance lifespan. Notably, each dog is unique, and some German Shepherds may live well beyond the average lifespan with proper care and a bit of luck in the genetic lottery. Regular veterinary care remains key for early disease detection and treatment.

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Common Factors that Reduce a German Shepherd's Lifespan

The lifespan of a German Shepherd, like any other breed, can be influenced by various factors. These factors can have both positive and negative effects, and while some are under our control, others, like genetic predispositions, are not. By understanding these factors, owners can take proactive steps to provide the best possible care and potentially extend their dog's life.

Here are the ten most common factors that can reduce the lifespan of German Shepherds:

  1. Genetic Disorders
  2. Obesity
  3. Inadequate Diet
  4. Lack of Exercise
  5. Neglected Dental Health
  6. Stress
  7. Lack of Regular Veterinary Care
  8. Inadequate Socialization
  9. Uncontrolled Parasites
  10. Exposure to Toxins

Genetic disorders

Genetic disorders are a significant factor that can reduce the lifespan of German Shepherds. Certain health problems like hip and elbow dysplasia, degenerative myelopathy, and certain types of cancer are known to be genetically predisposed in this breed. These conditions can cause chronic pain, decreased mobility, and other serious health complications that can negatively impact a dog's quality of life and lifespan.

Furthermore, bloat and heart disease can lead to sudden and unexpected death. Breeders must conduct health screenings and responsible breeding practices to minimize the prevalence of these genetic disorders in the breed. Awareness and early veterinary intervention can help owners manage these conditions more effectively.


Obesity is a major health concern for all dog breeds, including German Shepherds. Overweight dogs are at an increased risk of numerous health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, and certain types of cancer. Moreover, for German Shepherds genetically predisposed to hip and elbow dysplasia, carrying extra weight can exacerbate these conditions, leading to more severe mobility issues and pain.

Obesity in dogs fact

Obesity can also place extra stress on the dog's organs and reduce overall lifespan. Maintaining a balanced diet appropriate for your dog's age, size, and activity level and regular exercise is crucial in preventing obesity. Regular weight checks and veterinary consultations can ensure your German Shepherd stays within a healthy weight range.

Inadequate Diet

Inadequate nutrition can significantly impact a German Shepherd's health and longevity. A diet lacking essential nutrients or containing poor-quality ingredients can result in deficiencies, compromised immunity, and increased susceptibility to disease. Certain health conditions like Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency (EPI), common in German Shepherds, require specific dietary management for the dog's well-being.

On the other hand, a diet high in unhealthy fats or sugars can contribute to obesity, diabetes, and other health complications. A balanced, high-quality diet appropriate for the dog's life stage, size, and activity level is essential for maintaining optimal health and extending lifespan. Regular vet consultations can help meet your German Shepherd's dietary needs.

Lack of Exercise

German Shepherds are an active and intelligent breed, requiring regular physical exercise to maintain their overall health. Lack of exercise can lead to obesity, associated with many health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and joint issues. Insufficient physical activity can also lead to behavioral problems such as anxiety and destructive behavior, affecting the dog's overall well-being.

German Shepherd exercise time

A German Shepherd, particularly in its prime, typically requires at least 1 to 2 hours of exercise per day to stay healthy and mentally stimulated.

Mental stimulation, which can be achieved through exercise and training, is also essential for this highly intelligent breed to prevent boredom and associated behavioral issues.

Regular walks, play sessions, and appropriate training activities are crucial for their physical health, mental stimulation, and overall quality of life, ultimately contributing to a longer, healthier lifespan.

Related blog post: Are German Shepherds High-Energy dog breed?

Neglected Dental Health

Neglecting dental health can significantly impact a German Shepherd's well-being and lifespan. Dental diseases like periodontitis and gingivitis don't only cause bad breath and tooth loss; they can also lead to serious systemic infections. Bacteria from the mouth can enter the bloodstream and affect vital organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Regular tooth brushing, dental chews, and professional cleanings can help maintain good oral health.

While German Shepherds aren't as prone to dental diseases as some smaller breeds, they're not immune. Maintaining good dental hygiene is an essential aspect of preventative care, helping to ensure that your German Shepherd lives a long, healthy life free from the pain and complications associated with dental diseases.


Chronic stress or anxiety can profoundly impact a German Shepherd's health, reducing lifespan. High-stress levels can lead to behavioral issues like excessive barking, destructive behavior, or aggression. Physically, stress can suppress the immune system, making the dog more susceptible to illness and disease. It can also exacerbate certain health conditions like skin allergies and gastrointestinal issues.

As an intelligent and sensitive breed, German Shepherds are prone to anxiety-related issues, especially without proper training and socialization. Regular exercise, mental stimulation, a consistent routine, and a safe environment can help manage stress levels. If a dog shows signs of chronic stress or anxiety, it's recommended to consult a vet or a professional behaviorist for targeted strategies and potential treatments.

Lack of Regular Veterinary Care

Regular veterinary care is essential for maintaining the health and extending the lifespan of German Shepherds. Routine check-ups can detect early signs of diseases common in the breed, such as hip dysplasia, heart disease, and certain types of cancer. Early detection often results in more effective treatment and better outcomes. Regular vet visits also ensure that your dog is up-to-date with vaccinations and parasite control, both crucial for preventing serious diseases.

German Shepherd at vet

Regular veterinary care is vital for a German Shepherd's health. Annual check-ups and timely vaccinations can prevent diseases, while routine screenings help detect issues early.

Additionally, vets can provide valuable advice on diet, exercise, dental care, and other aspects of your dog's health. Neglecting regular veterinary care can result in unnoticed health issues progressing to serious stages, potentially reducing your German Shepherd's quality of life and lifespan. Always consult your vet if you notice any changes in your dog's behavior or health.

Inadequate Socialization

Inadequate socialization can significantly impact a German Shepherd's health and lifespan. Proper socialization involves exposing puppies to a variety of environments, people, and other animals in a positive manner, promoting well-adjusted behavior as they mature. Without this, German Shepherds can develop behavioral issues, including fear, aggression, and anxiety, leading to stress-related health problems and reduced quality of life. 

Socialization also aids in mental stimulation, which is crucial for this intelligent breed to prevent boredom and related issues. Remembering that socialization should be a positive and gradual process, with plenty of rewards. Regular interaction with other dogs, exposure to different environments, and positive encounters with humans can contribute to a balanced temperament and a healthier, happier life for your German Shepherd.

Uncontrolled Parasites

Uncontrolled parasites can seriously affect a German Shepherd's health and longevity. External parasites like fleas and ticks can transmit diseases and cause skin irritation, leading to allergies and skin infections. Internal parasites such as heartworms, roundworms, and tapeworms can cause severe health problems, including anemia, weight loss, digestive issues, heartworms, heart disease, and lung damage.

Dog parasites under microscope

Parasitic infections are a major health threat to dogs worldwide. While precise numbers vary, it's estimated that thousands of dogs die annually due to untreated parasitic diseases.

Regular preventative treatments for internal and external parasites are essential to keep your German Shepherd healthy. Regular fecal tests and veterinary check-ups can help ensure that any parasitic infestations are caught early and treated effectively. Neglecting parasite control can lead to chronic health issues, reducing your German Shepherd's quality of life and potentially their lifespan.

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's cells, causing various health issues that can significantly impact a German Shepherd's lifespan. German Shepherds are prone to several autoimmune conditions, including degenerative myelopathy and certain skin conditions. These diseases can cause various symptoms, from chronic pain and discomfort to significant mobility issues and organ dysfunction.

Managing autoimmune diseases often requires lifelong treatment and can impact the dog's quality of life. Early detection, facilitated by regular veterinary check-ups and comprehensive treatment, can help manage these conditions and ensure that your German Shepherd lives a comfortable and fulfilling life, despite their condition. Remember, any changes in your dog's health or behavior should warrant a visit to the vet.

Why do German Shepherds not live long?

German Shepherds, like other large breeds, have a shorter lifespan due to their rapid growth rate, genetics predisposing them to health issues, and a higher risk of heart disease. Their faster metabolic rate also results in quicker aging, thus reducing lifespan.

There are several reasons for this phenomenon:

  1. Size and Growth Rate: Larger breeds like German Shepherds grow faster and age quicker than smaller breeds. Rapid growth can stress their bodies, leading to the earlier onset of age-related diseases and conditions.

  2. Genetics and Breed-Specific Health Issues: German Shepherds are genetically predisposed to several health conditions, such as hip and elbow dysplasia, degenerative myelopathy, and certain types of cancer. These health issues can affect their quality of life and lifespan.

  3. Heart Disease: Larger breeds are more prone to heart disease, which can significantly reduce their lifespan. German Shepherds are particularly susceptible to certain forms of heart disease like subaortic stenosis.

  4. Metabolic Rate: Larger dogs have a faster metabolic rate, which means their bodies work harder and age quicker. This faster pace of living contributes to a shorter lifespan.

German Shepherds end of life symptoms

End-of-life symptoms in German Shepherds may include lethargy, loss of appetite, incontinence, labored breathing, and isolation. They may also show difficulty in movement and signs of discomfort or pain.

As German Shepherds reach their end-of-life stage, they typically exhibit physical and behavioral changes. Lethargy and decreased mobility might be due to age-related ailments like arthritis or hip dysplasia worsening, making movement painful.

📝 Related blog post: German Shepherd end of life symptoms 

Loss of appetite can result from various underlying health issues, including dental problems, kidney disease, or cancer. Persistent refusal to eat often indicates serious illness.

German Shepherd end of life symptoms

Incontinence is another common sign, as older dogs may lose control of their bladder and bowel movements.

Labored breathing can indicate heart disease, lung issues, or other internal problems.

Lastly, many dogs tend to isolate themselves more when nearing the end of their life, seeking out quiet, secluded spots.

It's important to consult a vet if your dog shows these symptoms, as they can also indicate treatable health issues. They can also guide you in providing comfort and palliative care for your pet during this stage.

Human years in German Shepherd years

The table below provides an estimated conversion from human to dog years, specifically designed for large breed dogs such as German Shepherds.

This conversion is based on the understanding that large dogs age more rapidly than their smaller counterparts.

It's crucial to remember that these numbers are approximations, and individual dogs may age at different rates depending on genetics, diet, and overall health.

Human years in German Shepherds years table

Human years German Shepherd Years (Large Breed)
1 14
2 23
3 28
4 33
5 38
6 43
7 48
8 53
9 58
10 63
11 68
12 73
13 78
14 83
15 88 
16 93
17 98
18 103
19 108
20 113


Final words

Understanding the various health issues and factors affecting the lifespan of German Shepherds is crucial for anyone owning or considering this breed. We've explored the ten most common health issues and diseases that can afflict these dogs and the ten factors that can reduce their lifespan.

While it's true that German Shepherds may face certain genetic predispositions, attentive care, a proper diet, sufficient exercise, and regular veterinary visits can significantly enhance their quality of life.

Remember, the aim is to extend your pet's life and ensure that those years are filled with vitality and joy. Your German Shepherd can lead a happy, fulfilling life with proper care and love, bringing you companionship and joy in return.

Frequently asked questions

Do you still have questions? Check our FAQ section, and you can find your answer here!

Can a German Shepherd live 20 years?

While a German Shepherd can live to 20 years, it's exceedingly rare and well beyond this breed's average lifespan, typically around 9-13 years. Genetics, diet, exercise, and veterinary care can influence a dog's lifespan. A healthy lifestyle can help your dog live a longer, healthier life.

Is 14 old for a German Shepherd?

Yes, 14 years is considered old for a German Shepherd. The typical lifespan of this breed is around 9-13 years, so a German Shepherd living to 14 has exceeded the average expectancy. At this age, they are likely in their senior years and may require more veterinary care and specialized attention for age-related health issues.

Suggestion: How to care for a Senior German Shepherd?

What is the oldest German Shepherd?

According to some sources, the oldest German Shepherd has lived 18 years. Some sources say that the oldest ever German Shepherd has lived 29 years (which is ridiculous).

Turkish Zeynep (German Shepherd dog mix) is the oldest dog with the genes of a German Shepherd dog. In December 2022, this dog was 23 years old.

How much exercise does a 10 year old German Shepherd need?

A 10-year-old German Shepherd, being a senior, needs about 30-45 minutes of gentle exercise daily. Activities could include leisurely walks or light play sessions. However, it's important to adjust based on the dog's health and energy levels and avoid overexertion that could stress their joints. Always consult with a vet for personalized advice.

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